Stands for Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line, the first broadband internet service. Now called ADSL1 to differentiate from faster, newer technology ADSL2+.


The process of verifying a user’s identity, usually requiring the user to provide a unique username and password.


A measurement of the amount of data that can be sent over a network, usually expressed as units/time e.g. bits per second or bps. Higher bandwidth means a faster connection.


Stands for bits per second or the number of bits of data that can be sent over a network connection. If bps refers to modem speed, it means amount of data that a modem can transfer each second. Highway1 internet speeds go up to 20,000Mbps for fibre optic connections.


Also known as an internet browser, it’s an application used to navigate the World Wide Web or internet.


Small text files installed on your computer when you browse certain web sites. Cookies store information about a user’s browsing activity, and are often used by sites that allow users to “personalise” their service.


An internet connection between the user and the Internet Service Provider where the user’s phone dial up to the ISP. This was the first type of internet connection and is not broadband.

Domain name

The address of a website e.g. is the ZettaNet domain name.


Stands for Domain Name System or the database system which stores both the domain name and IP addresses of Internet computers. When you type a domain name in your browser, it will access a DNS database to find the corresponding IP address then establish a connection to the site.


The process of transferring data from an Internet computer to your computer. A download is any material that was not originally on your computer. (An upload is the process of transferring data from your computer to an internet computer e.g. email)


Short for Electronic mail, the process of sending messages from one computer to another via a computer network.


Stands for Frequently Asked Questions. An FAQ document usually contains both questions and answers e.g. ZettaNet’s FAQ about Services or FAQ about Terms.


A security mechanism that protects a computer or network from unauthorised access.


Stands for File Transfer Protocol, the name of the protocol that regulates the manner in which files are transferred between computers connected to the Internet.


A person who causes deliberate harm or gains unauthorized access to restricted information via use of a computer.


Stands for Hyper Text Markup Language, the main language used to create web pages. Web documents contain HTML commands (tags) which instruct web browsers on how to display text and media elements, activate hyperlinks, etc.


Stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol, the protocol that regulates how the contents of a web site (including files and images) are transferred across the Internet.


A portion of text, that when clicked on within a web browser instructs the browser to open a new web document or connect to another web site.

IP (Internet Protocol) address

A string of four sets of numbers separated by full stops (for example used to identify a particular computer or resource available on the Internet. IP addresses are used by computers when communicating with one another, and are cross-referenced to domain names (see above)


Stands for Internet Service Provider, a company like ZettaNet that provides internet access to customers.


Stands for Local Area Network which is two or more computers connected at one location.


A hardware device used for computer-to-computer communication over a standard telephone line.


Before data can be sent across a network it is broken down into smaller pieces or packets. Each packet is transmitted individually and then reassembled by the recipient computer back into its original form.


A security requirement to gain access to a service or computer, consisting of string of characters (often a mixture of letters and numbers).


Stands for Point of Presence or the dial-in-point operated by an Internet Service Provider.

Search engine

A Web service dedicated to helping users locate information of interest on the internet e.g. Google or Yahoo! Users search for information by using keywords or browsing categories.


The sending of unsolicited email messages e.g. advertisements, calls to action or demands, to a large number of users.


Stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, the basic protocols underlying network communication between computers.

Trojan (horse)

A program which appears to perform a useful task yet actually carries out other tasks, usually malicious ones.


Stands for Uniform Resource Locator which identifies the location of Internet resources, such as web sites. A domain name expressed as e.g. is also a URL.


A program or piece of software designed to carry out malicious activities on your computer. Anti-virus or AV protection is software that can be installed to protect against virus attacks.